The previous chapter brieﬂy introduced a few perspectives on testing, with anemphasis on validity as a measure of the eﬀectiveness of test scores.Validity is an overarching issue that encompasses all stages in the testdevelopment and administration processes, from blueprint to bubble sheet,including the stage wherein we choose the empirical operations that willassign numbers or labels to t… Please read Have you ever dieted? My waist 0 1 2 3 4, 8. Possible scores range from 1 to 9, and higher scores indicate more positive body image. . Finally, it should be noted that although the scale is a reliable measure of body image over time in patients with stable disease and whose treatment remains unchanged, the study did not determine if the questionnaire is capable of measuring change in body image perception in patients with IBD (responsiveness) after medical treatment, surgery, or other life events. nervous you feel in general (i.e., usually) about your body or specific parts This question biases dissatisfaction towards those who have undergone operation, since those not having had surgery necessarily score zero. The modified body image scale is a valid tool for assessing body image in patients with IBD. statements listed below are to be used to describe how anxious, tense, or My A higher score suggest better body image and a low score indicates a negative body image. The Body Image States Scale (BISS) is a six-item measure of individuals’ evaluation and affect about their physical appearance at a particular moment in time. Its 2-week test–retest was found to be 0.82 (Cash & Grasso, 2005). However, factor analysis revealed that these additional items formed a separate factor, reduced predictive ability when compared with the original scale and reduced internal reliability. Our aim was to assess and validate a body image questionnaire for patients with IBD. My lips 0 1 2 3 4, 11. My wrists 0 1 2 3 4, 12. extent to which I look overweight 1 2 3 4 5, 2. My My hips 0 1 2 3 4, 5. It includes a 7-point scale that assesses the influence of body image on 19 areas of one's psychosocial functioning (e.g., day-to-day emotions, sexuality, self-confidence, grooming habits, etc.) A normal individual's body image is thought to be influenced by many factors including gender, personality type, and cultural and social norms. Yes No Score 0 1 Scoring: Sum the scores for each question. Three patients declined, 43 did not return the questionnaire, and a further 3 had critical body image data missing. My forehead 0 1 2 3 4, 14. My wrists 1 2 3 4 5, 12. Cash TF, Phillips KA, Santos MT, et al. We therefore excluded this question. It is a multifaceted construct, consisting of perceptual, attitudinal, and behavioural components 1 Cash TF. Have you ever dieted to lose weight? Introduction: Body image distortion (BID) is a risk factor, which can lead to eating disorders problems. Preoperative body-related emotional distress and culture as predictors of outcomes of bariatric surgery. each statement and circle the number that best indicates the extent to which Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. One of the few available instruments for body esteem, the Body Esteem Scale investigates characteristics in young women and young men related to body esteem. Linear Regression Analysis Assessing Clinical Factors Associated with Body Image Dissatisfaction in 338 Patients with IBD. Psychometric properties of the body image scale were assessed in a number of ways. Brief word instructions: Point to each face using the words to describe the pain intensity. The study therefore included 338 patients whose demographic and clinical details are shown in Table 1. Frequency of body image scale scores in 338 patients with IBD. Data from another scale, the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, were also collected in addition to demographic and clinical data. Figure 4 shows the association between the modified Body Image Scale and the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. Correlations were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). Body image dissatisfaction is commonly found in the general population.1 As an example, 62% of female and 38% of male European university students consider themselves “too fat.”2 High rates of body image dissatisfaction are also found in American university students,3 and the perceived pressure for females to be thin and for males to have a muscular physique frequently impacts on the normal individual's emotional and interpersonal experiences and quality of life.4,5. The It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. The authors would like to acknowledge Boston Scientific for funding Dr. Edel McDermott as a University College Dublin Newman Research Fellow for this study. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. My hurts as much as you can image, although you don’t have to be crying to feel this bad. My chin 0 1 2 3 4, 16. 3 This body image tool has a different format to the body image scale, with both quantitative and qualitative components, and has been validated in patient cohorts and in healthy students. In terms of scoring, the first step is to examine any responses provided under ‘‘other’’ to determine whether they are equivalent to a body part provided in the list. An individual's body image may change in response to aging, media and advertising exposure, previous life events, and both positive or negative interpersonal experiences. . Yes No Score 0 1 13. METHODS: A 14-item survey using the Body Image States Scale (BISS), with questions related to sex, age, height, weight, and exercise participation, was completed for body image analysis, determining significant differences between students. stomach 0 1 2 3 4, 6. Factor analysis resulted in a single factor solution explaining 65% of the variance, indicating that the 9-item scale performed well on scale structure testing. Muller KR, Prosser R, Bampton P, et al. Assessing body image in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma): validation of the adapted satisfaction with appearance Scale. The Body Image States Scale (BISS) has six items that are used to assess and individual’s evaluative and affective body image state at a given moment in time (Cash, 2008). My waist 1 2 3 4 5, 8. Developed 25 years ago by Don Henneke, PhD, as part of his doctoral research, the BCS scale ranges from 1 (poor) to 9 (obese). Yet the extensive data underpinning these beliefs are incomplete, insofar as no single study has integrated broad biological and psychosocial strands to assess the range of IBD comorbidities and determine their interactions. Second, the questionnaire needed to be appropriate for both patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and to consider the effects of treatment and disease. The ideal body image is represented as a predominantly thin, able-bodied young Anglo woman. Figure 3 shows the frequency of total body image scores. Edel McDermott, MB, Jenny Moloney, BSc, Niamh Rafter, BComm, Denise Keegan, RGN, Kathryn Byrne, BSc, Glen A. Doherty, PhD, Garret Cullen, MD, Kevin Malone, MD, Hugh E. Mulcahy, MD, The Body Image Scale: A Simple and Valid Tool for Assessing Body Image Dissatisfaction in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Volume 20, Issue 2, 1 February 2014, Pages 286–290, https://doi.org/10.1097/01.MIB.0000438246.68476.c4. . This can be negatively influenced by a number of factors including disease states and treatments. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine factors independently associated with body image dissatisfaction. My neck 1 2 3 4 5, 15. The BISS … Relationship between body image, gender, and previous surgery in 338 patients with IBD. Using feminist theory about the social construction of the female body, a scale was developed and validated to measure objectified body consciousness (OBC) in young women (N= 502) and middle‐aged women (N= 151).Scales used were (a) surveillance (viewing the body as an outside observer), (b) body shame (feeling shame when the body does not conform), and (c) … Moreira H, Silva S, Marques A, et al. My hands 1 2 3 4 5, 13. Convergent validity was assessed by comparing the body image scale with the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire.3 This body image tool has a different format to the body image scale, with both quantitative and qualitative components, and has been validated in patient cohorts and in healthy students.3,8 We felt this was relevant to our IBD population, whose disease is frequently diagnosed in young adulthood. Patients scored from 0 (“Not at all”) to 3 (“Very much”) on each question so the lowest possible total score was 0 and the highest 27, with higher scores indicating increasing body image dissatisfaction. Although body image issues are clearly important to patients with IBD, study is hampered by the absence of a suitable assessment tool to collect standardized data. Methods: Participants (N = 459) ranged in age from 18 It was developed primarily for use in research trials, and has previously been found to be a valid and succinct measure of the impact of both disease and treatment on body image.14,15 We found it easy to administer, and patients seemed to find it simple and quick to use with only 3 of 341 patients who returned the questionnaire failing to complete the body image tool adequately. The Body Dissatisfaction Scale (BDS) comprises images of computer generated bodies. Internal consistency of the body image scale was demonstrated with a Cronbach alpha of 0.93. Previous guidelines suggest an appropriate response rate of greater than 30%.14 Principal componant analysis with varimax rotation was employed to assess the structure and content validity of the scale (factoral validity). The body condition score (BCS) system offers an objective method of estimating a horse's body fat levels. buttocks 1 2 3 4 5, 4. The need exists for a psychometrically sound measure of individuals' evaluative/affective body image states. In a study with 102 undergraduate volunteers (72 women, 30 men) ranging between 18 and 43, they found an average overall score of 70 points (on a scale from 20 to 100). References Franzoi, S.L. thighs 1 2 3 4 5, 3. Body image disturbance questionnaire—Scoliosis Version: discriminant validity in AIS. Changes in physical appearance, function, and body integrity are central to the experience of both health and illness, and future IBD projects will require validated and concise questionnaires on a range of topics such as body image to acquire reliable results. My feet 1 2 3 4 5, Physical Appearance State and Between 30% and 72% of patients answered “Not at all” to each of the 9 questions. My hips 1 2 3 4 5, 5. Divided by the three different factes, they found an average of 25 for Performance (range 7 to 35) and Social (range 7 to 35), and 20 on Appearance (range 6 to 30). Ask the person to choose the face that best describes how he is feeling. Responsiveness has previously been demonstrated in the original development of the scale with a significant increase in the reporting of body image dissatisfaction after surgery,14 but responsiveness in patients with IBD will require a longitudinal study of patients either undergoing changes to their medical treatment or surgery. Ask the child Cognitive-behavioral perspectives on body image. Percentage of 338 patients with IBD answering each of 9 body image scale questions: “Not at all,” “A little,” “Quite a lot,” and “Very much”. This scale, one of the scales intended to measure state mindfulness, was created by Tanay and Bernstein in 2013 and has been cited in positive psychological research. Demographic and Clinical Details of 338 IBD Study Patients. These body images tend to reflect thin, Anglo American women, from a middle to upper class status, as the norm of healthy and beautiful (Abrams and Stormer, 2002). thighs 0 1 2 3 4, 3. Oyekcin DG, Gulpek D, Sahin EM, et al. It is interesting that this is the only question that relates to patients' interactions with others rather than personal perceptions about body image, and the low positive response rate may relate to the lack of readily noticeable signs of disease or functional changes in most patients. (1994). Traits Anxiety Scale (PASTAS): Trait These assessed dissatisfaction related to body odor and noise, both potentially pertinent to our patient population. The best answer is what you feel is … 2001 Jan;37(2):189-97 (PubMed Abstract) The format for the Body Esteem Scale includes 35 items using 17 items from the Body Cathexis Scale and 16 new items. nervous you feel right now about your My A better understanding of the appreciation for one’s body, the higher the prediction of behaviors that can become problematic in various populations. on a negative (−3) to positive (+3) continuum. . The score is achieved by summing the 9 items. Body image may differ between girls of different races and ethnic backgrounds. In In the development of the original scale, Hopwood et al14 described the process of item generation and scale construction, using “the literature, discussion with health professionals, and extensive interviews with breast cancer patients.” We assessed content validity of the scale in our IBD population with a team of multidisciplinary health care professionals involved in the care of patients with IBD. Internal consistency of the questions was demonstrated with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.93. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS The Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire was developed within a cognitive behavioral framework and focuses on the psychosocial impact of body image disturbance. Overall, 8 of the 9 questions achieved the recommended 30% response rate with question 7 achieving a 28% positive response rate. The Body Image Scale largely fulfills the above criteria. My ears 0 1 2 3 4, 10. First, the questions needed to focus on body image satisfaction, rather than psychological or cognitive behavior, to facilitate its use by gastroenterologists and provide a clear message for clinicians to understand and interpret. Forty-five patients had a body image scale score of 0 and the median score was 6. The Body Areas Satisfaction Scale (BASS) is a frequently used, standardized assessment of evaluative body image, albeit one that does not use differential item weights. From a clinical point of view, it would be helpful to identify patients with body image alterations who might benefit from simple or more complex psychological interventions. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for patients with symptomatic urachal remnants: an experience with 57 patients. What are the potential uses for an IBD body image scale? Finally, validity needed to be confirmed in a large group of patients with IBD. Body image is an important endpoint in quality of life evaluation since cancer treatment may result in major changes to patients' appearance from disfiguring surgery, late effects of radiotherapy or adverse effects of systemic treatment. Body Image Assessments: Ordering Information IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS: Place the measures you desire into your shopping cart. affected body image. My legs 1 2 3 4 5, 7. My Scores of 40 or above are strongly suggestive of a diagnosis of BDD. Correlation between the modified body image scale and the body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ) in 338 patients with IBD. Version. It has 35 items (such as "scent" or "nose") that need to be rated on a 5 point scale, ranging from strong negative feelings to strong positive feelings. Reprints: Hugh E. Mulcahy, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, St Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland (e-mail: email@example.com). My legs 0 1 2 3 4, 7. Right Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals’ acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. Rating scale is recommended for persons age 3 years and older. Ethical approval was obtained from local Ethics Committees. . Body Image Survey Scoring Instrument (Cont’d) 12. The Physical Appearance State and Traits Anxiety Scale (PASTAS): Trait Version The statements listed below are to be used to describe how anxious, tense, or nervous you feel in general (i.e., usually) about your body or specific parts of your body. Convergent validity was established with a correlation coefficient of 0.64 (P < 0.001) with the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. Linear regression analysis indicated that body image was unrelated to disease type (P = 0.77) and confirmed that younger age, female gender, and both nonstoma and stoma forming surgery were independently associated with body image dissatisfaction (Table 2). The sample was 55% European American, 30% African American, 8% Asian, and 7% from other minorities. The scale has been adapted in many languages and utilized to study body image and cultural influence in many countries. Copyright © 2013 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc. . . My Continuous data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Evincing its convergent validity, the BISS was appropriately correlated with various trait measures of body image. Body Mass Index (BMI; kg weight/m2height) averaged 25.0 (SD= 4.1) for men and 24.7 (SD= 6.3) for women. Body image perceptions among university students from England and Denmark, Measuring “negative body image”: validation of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in a nonclinical population, The role of the media in body image concerns among women: a meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies, Body talk among college men: content, correlates, and effects, Body Image: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice, Body image of women with rheumatoid arthritis, Body image disturbance in patients with Acne Vulgaris, Depression, anxiety, body image, sexual functioning, and dyadic adjustment associated with dialysis type in chronic renal failure, Patient-reported body image and cosmesis outcomes following kidney surgery: comparison of laparoendoscopic single-site, laparoscopic, and open surgery, Female gender and surgery impair relationships, body image, and sexuality in inflammatory bowel disease: patient perceptions. My forehead 1 2 3 4 5, 14. We found the modified Body Image Scale valid, quick, and simple to use and we anticipate that it may make a suitable component of future IBD clinical and research assessments. The landmark PT national surveys … The State Mindfulness Scale (SMS) was designed to address the lack of state mindfulness measurements in psychological literature and is based on the MAAS (Brown & Ryan, 2003). It has been tested and validated on a broad range of cancer patients, and coverage has proved acceptable to both male and female patients with a range of body image concerns.14,15 The scale is not specific to any 1 disease and focuses on the effects of both disease and treatment on body image. Between 28% and 70% of patients indicated some level of body image dissatisfaction to each question. Encyclopedia of body image and human appearance: Elsevier 2012:334-342. 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